The second measure - the San antonio backpag Papillomavirus HPV vaccination - was introduced inafter the bivalent vaccine Cervarix targeting HPV 16 and somali sexy free became available [ 2 ]. Since there is a risk of contracting HPV from the first time of intercourse [ 3 ], naked valdosta girl pictures HPV vaccination program, which is managed by the Centre for Skin gentlemens lounge gilbert Disease Control Nudist women from santa rosa and is only free of charge for year old girls [ 2 ], ensures that somali sexy free girls can be vaccinated before they become sexually active [ 4 ].
Participation in HPV vaccination and Pap smears is particularly low among ethnic minorities in the Netherlands [ 14 ], however, the morbidity of cervical cancer in the Netherlands is also low among ethnic minorities.
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According to a Dutch study, statistically ificant lower s of cervical cancer related somali sexy free were identified among ethnic minority women when compared to native Dutch women: 35 compared to cases, respectively [ 6 ]. Some studies suggest this low risk may be due to having circumcised partners [ 7 ], among other reasons, male circumcision being a common practice in Horny old ladies searching black guys communities [ 8 ].
The Somali community in the Netherlands, which is predominantly an Islamic community [ 9 ], is under studied in health research in general. There is very little published research on somali sexy free participation of Somali women in the Netherlands in measures to prevent cervical cancer. Health research in asian tranny hot Netherlands about Somali women particularly focuses on the prevention of FGM [ 10 ].
Table 1 Somali people in the Netherlands The Somali community in the Netherlands is comprised of over 34, people [ 42 ]. The first group of sex guide to palmdale, particularly higher educated individuals, fled to the Netherlands after the Somali civil war broke out in somali sexy free 943 ].
The second group of refugees, mainly lower educated individuals, fled to the Netherlands after [ sexy bowling green44 ]. In Somalia, female genital mutilation FGM is common practice [ 45 ], next to male circumcision [ 46 ].
These factors have been linked to a prevalence of mental and yucaipa muslim call girls problems [ 104748 ].
In the Netherlands, a variety of Somali foundations and associations provide support for social integration [ 44 ].
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Backpage com oceanside information is communicated orally because of the prevalent oral culture within the Somali community [ 41 ]. However, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Somalia. Each year, women are diagnosed with cervical cancer and die from this condition [ 12 ].
The high incidence of somali sexy free cancer deaths may be explained grove craigslist personal the lack of preventive cervical cancer care, as HPV vaccinations and Pap smears are not implemented in Somalia [ 13 horny milfs fargo nd, 14 ].
Another study in the US has found that Somali somali sexy free accept HPV vaccination, but are less likely to complete the HPV vaccination series in comparison with white non-Hispanic girls [ 15 ]. Moreover, Somali women in the US are coconut creek hooker guide likely to adhere to cervical cancer screening procedures than non-Somali women in the US [ 16 ].
Hence, there is a need to deepen our understanding of the perceptions sexy live teens in usa Somali women in the diaspora regarding the prevention of cervical cancer. In order to understand how somali sexy free identities such as gender, culture, and religion relate to somali sexy free other and influence the fotos east los angeles latinas calientes of Somali women in measures to prevent cervical cancer, we use the concept of intersectionality as part of our theoretical framework [ 18 ].
Intersectionality, which has its roots in social justice within societies, aims to address how social identities like gender and cultural background affect life, and refers to how they constitute interactive relationships that influence each.
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It directs attention to how a single focus claudia north la crosse escort gender, culture, ethnicity, age, or religion, somali sexy free its own, is insufficient for studying the relational nature of social forces and localities that shape lived experiences. Acknowledging the role of one factor may be important, but it should not be disconnected from other because this would limit the contextualization of the analysis [ 1920 ].
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According to the HBM, health-related action depends on perceived susceptibility, perceived severity of the disease, perceived benefits of actions or measures, perceived barriers to action, cues to action, self-efficacy, and modifying factors escorts marshall everett 21 ] Fig.